Common Medical Terms Related to Diseases


We often hear certain terms like dietary supplements, antibiotics, inflammation and so on from our nutritionists, healthcare professionals or doctors. Though they seem to be familiar, most of us do not know what exactly they are. Having a basic idea on such terminology is necessary to lead a sensible life.

Disease-related Terms

Here is a list of some common medical terms related to diseases and the common symptoms (signs of illness) that arise due to various disease conditions.

Terms related to diseases

  • Diarrhea – It is a condition with frequent passing of loose or watery stools. Oral rehydration solution containing salts and sugar (purifier water) is given to patients with diarrhea to replace the fluid loss.
  • Asthma – Asthma is a disorder where the airways of lungs swell and become narrow. An asthmatic patient, therefore, suffers from shortness of breath, chest tightness, coughing and wheezing (continuous, coarse and whistling sound produced during breathing).

  • Diabetes – Diabetes is a disease resulted due to increased levels of blood sugar. Diabetic patients have excess thirst, frequent urination, hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and fatigue.

  • Hypertension (High BP) – Hypertension refers to a condition of high blood pressure. However, to know it, you need to first have an idea on what a blood pressure (BP) is. Blood pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of your blood vessels as your heart pumps the blood throughout your body. The BP readings are denoted by two numbers, 120/80 mmHg where the upper number denotes a systolic blood pressure and the lower ones denotes a diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the measure of BP while the heart is beating and diastolic blood pressure is the measure of BP when the heart is in relaxed state between heartbeats. Hypertension or high BP is a condition where the BP is 140/90 mmHg or above.
  • Obesity – It is a condition of having too much body fat. Most often people consider obesity as overweight. Overweight is weighting too much and this may be due to extra muscle, bone, water or too much fat. Obesity may lead to reduced life expectancy because or increased health problems. It increases the chances of diseases like heart disease and diabetes.
    Heart stroke – It occurs when blood flow to a part of heart is blocked for a long enough time which results in a damage or death of a part of heart muscle.

  • Cancer – An uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in any part of the body is referred as cancer. Various types of cancer include brain cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer, kidney cancer, leukemia (blood cancer), etc. The treatment for cancer can be difficult; however, the medication is given based on its stage.

  • Metabolic syndrome – It is a condition where a group of risk factors occur together and increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases (heart diseases), diabetes, and stroke (A brain attack which happens when the blood flow to a part of brain stops).
  • Thyroid diseases – Many people are not aware of these thyroid diseases. A thyroid is a gland present in your neck. It helps set your metabolism – how the body gets energy from the foods you eat. When you have a thyroid disease, your body uses energy more slowly or quickly than it should. Less active thyroid gland causes overweight, fatigue, and difficulty to deal with cold temperatures. Highly active thyroid gland causes weight loss, rise in heart-rate, and increased sensitivity to heat.
  • Osteoporosis – It is condition where the bone tissue gets thinned. Osteoporosis does not show any symptoms in its early stages. However, patients suffering from the condition at a late stage face bone pain or tenderness, fractures with little or no trauma, low back pain and neck pain due to fractures of spinal bones.

Having an idea on these terms helps you maintain your health properly.

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