Teachings of Religions Born in India


There are four religions that were born and flourished in India. They expanded beyond the Indian subcontinent. The teachings of these religions are mostly from ancient philosophies and in the way of leading life peacefully.

Hinduism

The exact roots of the Hinduism are not clearly known, and it was not established by any single person. There was no single philosophy and tradition. Now it is the third biggest and the one of the world’s oldest living religions. Followed by more than 100 crore people around the world, majority is in India and Nepal. The basis of Hinduism are the ancient Sanskrit scriptures and literature.

  • Scriptures of Hinduism:

    There are so many scriptures for Hinduism. Some of the important scriptures are as follows:

    • Shruti:

      Shruti literally means listening. It consists of Vedas and other ancient scriptures. The belief is that shruti came from the words of sages. Shrutis have the ultimate and supreme authority than all other scriptures.

    • Smriti:

      Smriti means remember, to recollect. It is based on the Shruti. Smriti consists of Mahabharata, Ramayana, Manu smriti etc.

    • Puranas:

      Puranas means “of ancient times”. There are totally 18 puranas. These scriptures consist of the stories of gods, spiritual teachings, history, cosmology, philosophy and geography.

Buddhism


Buddhism is one of the oldest religions born in Indian subcontinent. It is the world’s fourth largest religion. It expanded to the nearby countries like China, Tibet, Burma, etc. Buddhism focuses on personal spiritual development and the attainment of insight into the true nature of life. It is based on the preaches of Buddha.

  • Teachings of Buddha: Four truths and eight fold path

    • Four truths

      • Dukkha – Means suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction
      • Samud Ayasatya or Samudaya – Cause or origin of suffering
      • Nirodha – Cessation or removal of the suffering
      • Marga – The path of self improvement or the path of cessation of suffering
    • Noble eightfold path

    • 1. Right view – Do not view as it appears. View reality of it.
      2. Right intention – Freedom and harmlessness
      3. Right speech – Non hurtful way and speaking truth
      4. Right action – Non harmful way of any action
      5. Right livelihood – Live without harm to others
      6. Right effort – Effort should be right in a way to improve
      7. Right mindfulness – See the things with clear consciousness.
      8. Right concentration – Correct meditation or concentration

Jainism

Jainism is one of the ancient religions born in India. Jainism is based on the teachings of 24 Tirthankaras. The founder of Jainism is Adinath. Adinath is also known as Rishabha. There is little historical evidence about Rishabha. Some seals of Indus Valley likely to depict Rishabha. He was also mentioned in Vedic literature. The modern Jainism is shaped by the 24th Tirthankara Mahavir.

  • Three jewels:

    Mahavira instructed his followers three jewels.

    • Right belief
    • Right knowledge
    • Right conduct
  • Code of conduct:

    Jainism encourages the spiritual development through self control. For ascetics of Jainism undertake the following five major vows:

    • Ahimsa – Non-violence – no harm to living beings
    • Satya – Truthfulness – always speak truth
    • Asteya – Not stealing – not to take anything that is not willingly offered
    • Aparigraha – Non-acquisition, non possessiveness
    • Brahmacarya – Chaste living – Control over senses
  • Scriptures:

    Agamas are the scriptures of Jainism based on Mahavira’s teachings. Agamas are composed into forty five texts. Those are:

    • Twelve Angas
    • Twelve Upanga agamas – further explanation of Angas
    • Six Chedasutras – conduct and Behavior of monks and nuns
    • Four Mulasutras – earlier stages of the monk hood
    • Ten Prakirnaka sutras – independent or miscellaneous subjects
    • Two Culikasutras – decorate the meaning of Angas

Sikhism

Sikhism is the fifth largest organized religion in the world. It was founded by Guru Nanak Dev in the 15th century at Punjab region. Sikhism is framed by ten Gurus starting from Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh.

  • Physical code of conduct:

    The five essential items in the uniform starting with ‘K’ are as follows:

    • Kesh – long unshorn hair
    • Kangha – regularly wash and comb hair
    • Kada – iron Bangle
    • Kripan – sword
    • Katch – cotton loincloth
  • Scriptures:

    Guru Granth Sahib is the source of scriptures for the Sikhs. The other sources are as follows:

    • Adi Granth: Compiled by Bhai Gurdas contains hymns and teachings of gurus
    • Guru Granth Sahib: It has original Adi Granth with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s hymns.
    • Dasam Granth: Texts of tenth guru
    • Janamsakhis: Biographies of Nanak

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Religions Born in India

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